- A variety of chicory, radicchio leaves are red
with white ribs, and are slightly bitter. The
leaves are most often used in salads, but may
be grilled, sautéed, or baked.
Radish - A member of the mustard family
grown for its root (Raphanus sativus); generally,
the crisp white flesh has a mild to peppery flavor
and is usually eaten raw.
Ragoût - Ragout is derived from the
French verb ragoûter, which means "to
stimulate the appetite." A ragoût is
seasoned stew, usually made with meat, poultry,
fish, and often vegetables.
Raisin - A sweet dried grape.
Raita - A yogurt salad consisting of yogurt
and a variety of chopped vegetables, fruits and
flavored with garam masala, herbs and black mustard
seeds. Raita originates from East India.
Ramekin - A small baking dish resembling
a soufflé dish, a ramekin usually measures
from 3 to 6 inches in diameter and is used for
Ramen Noodles - Fine Japanese deep-fried
wheat noodles, which are commonly available packaged
with a broth mix.
Ramp - A wild onion which resembles the
leek, the ramp has a strong onion-garlic flavor.
It may be used as a substitute for leeks, scallions,
Rascasse - A type of scorpion fish which
achieved glory in Provence for its starring role
in the region's famed saffron-scented bouillabaisse.
Rasher - A strip of meat, such as bacon.
Rasher may also mean a serving of 2 to 3 thin
slices of meat.
Raspberry - A small ovoid or conical-shaped
berry (Rubus idaeus) composed of many connecting
drupelets (tiny individual sections of fruit,
each with its own seed) surrounding a central
core; has a sweet, slightly acidic flavor; the
three principal varieties are black, golden and
Ratatouille - A French vegetable stew that
combines a variety of vegetables and herbs simmered
in olive oil; can be served hot or cold as a side
dish or appetizer.
Ravioli - Italian for little wraps; used
to describe small squares or rounds of pasta stuffed
with meat, cheese or vegetables.
Raw Sugar - Sugar that hasn't been refined
enough to achieve a granulated quality. It looks
like coffee crystals. This coarse sugar is harder
to dissolve, making it a nice choice for sprinkling
Recipe - A set of written instructions
for producing a specific food or beverage; also
known as a formula (especially with regards to
Reconstitute - To restore condensed, dehydrated
or concentrated foods to their original strength
with the addition of liquid, usually water.
Red Beans - Dark red beans similar to red
kidney beans, but smaller; popular in chili and
as refried beans. They stay firm when cooked and
are excellent when accompanying rice. They are
available dried in most supermarkets; also known
as Mexican Red Beans.
Red Delicious Apple - A sweet, juicy, red
variety of apple; perfect for a snack, but does
not cook well. See also apples.
Red Snapper - A saltwater fish with red
eyes, reddish-pink skin and very lean, firm, white
flesh. The average market weight is 2 to 8 pounds,
and fresh snapper is available whole, or cut into
steaks or fillets.
Redeye Gravy - A southern gravy made by
adding water and sometimes hot coffee to ham drippings.
It's usually spooned over biscuits which are served
with the ham.
Reduce - To boil a liquid until a portion
of it has evaporated. Reducing intensifies the
flavor and results in a thicker liquid.
Reduced Cholesterol - A food containing a
minimum of 25% less cholesterol and 2g or less
of saturated fat per serving than reference food.
Reduced Or Fewer Calories - A food containing
a minimum of 25% fewer kcal per serving than a
Reduced Or Less Fat - A food containing
a minimum of 25% less fat per serving than a reference
Reduced Or Less Saturated Fat - A food containing
a minimum of 25% less saturated fat per serving
than a reference food.
Reduced Or Less Sodium - A food containing
a minimum of 25% less sodium than a reference
Reduced Sugar - A food containing at least
25 percent less sugar per serving than a reference
Refresh - To pour cold water over freshly
cooked vegetables to prevent further cooking and
to retain color.
Relish - A cooked or pickled sauce usually
made with vegetables or fruits and often used
as a condiment; can be smooth or chunky, sweet
or savory and hot or mild.
Rémoulade - Spicy sauce for seafood
consisting of mayonnaise, mustard, chopped pickles,
tarragon, parsley, chives and spices. It is served
cold with shellfish and can sometimes include
Render - To extract the fat from meat by
cooking over low heat. Rendered fat is strained
of meat particles after cooking.
Rennin - An acid-producing enzyme obtained
from a calf's stomach. Rennin aids in coagulating
milk and is used in cheese-making and junket;
available in many supermarkets in powdered or
Rhubard - A perennial plant with thick
red stalks and large green leaves which are poisonous.
The stalks have a tart flavor and are often used
in pies and tarts.
Rib - A single stalk of a bunch of celery,
also called a stalk.
Ribbon - The term describing the texture
of egg yolks which have been beaten with sugar.
When beaten sufficiently, the mixture forms a
thick "ribbon" when the beater is held
up over the bowl. The ribbon makes a pattern atop
the batter which disappears into the batter after
a few seconds.
Rice - 1. Rice (verb) To press cooked food
through a utensil called a ricer. The food comes
out in "strings" which vaguely resemble
rice. 2. The starch seed of a semiaquatic grass
(Oryza sativa), probably originating in Southeast
Asia and now part of most cuisines; divided into
three types based on seed size; long-grain, medium-grain
and short-grain, each of which is available in
different processed forms such as white rice and
Rice Paper Wrappers - Circular sheets made
from rice flour measuring approximately 8 inches
in diameter, rice paper wrappers are brittle and
translucent. They must be softened by dipping
in hot water for a few seconds and draining. Once
softened they can be used to make fresh Vietnamese-style
salad rolls or deep-fried spring rolls.
Rice Stick Noodles - Made from rice flour
and water, these noodles are translucent when
cooked. They are usually softened by soaking in
hot water for 10 -15 minutes before cooking with
other ingredients. Fine rice stick noodles can
also be deep fried to create a crispy garnish
often used in Chinese chicken salads.
Rice Vinegar - Used in both Japanese and
Chinese cooking, rice vinegar is made from fermented
rice and comes in several varieties, each differing
in intensity and tartness. In general they are
all fairly mild compared to European and American-style
vinegars. They can be used in dressings, marinades,
as dipping sauces and condiments.
Rice Wine - A clear, sweet wine made from
fermented rice. Rice wines are usually lower in
alcohol and can be served hot or cold. Sake and
Mirin are two popular Japanese rice wines. Chinese
versions include Chia Fan, Hsiang Hsueh, Shan
Niang and Yen Hung.
Rice-flour Noodles - Extremely thin noodles,
resembling translucent white hairs, made from
rice flour. They explode upon contact with hot
oil, becoming a tangle of light, crunchy strands.
They are a traditional ingredient in Chinese chicken
salad, and can be pre-soaked and used in soups
Ricotta Cheese - Ricotta is a soft, unripened
Italian curd cheese. It is the by product of the
whey of other cheeses. It is sweet in flavor and
grainy in texture. Ricotta is used often in Italian
sweets (most notably Cassata alla Sicilian) and
in savory dishes as pasta stuffing.
Rigatoni - A large, grooved pasta. Rigatoni's
ridges and holes are perfect with any sauce, from
cream or cheese to the chunkiest meat sauces.
Rigatoni - Italian for large groove and
used to describe large grooved, slightly curved
Rind - The tough outer peel of a food.
Risotto - Rice sautéed in butter
then cooked and stirred as stock is slowly added
in portions. As each addition of stock is absorbed,
another is added until the rice is creamy and
tender. Vegetables, meat, seafood, herbs, cheese,
wine, and other ingredients may be added.
Roast - To cook a food in an open pan in
the oven, with no added liquid.
Roasted Garlic - Process: Cut the top third
of the garlic head off and discard it. Drizzle
the remainder with olive oil and put it in aluminum
foil. Bake in a 400 degree F oven until edges
of the garlic are caramelized (about 40 min.).
Roaster - A size classification for a chicken
about 5 pounds in weight and from 10 to 20 weeks
Rocambole - Rocambole is similar to both
garlic and leeks. It looks like a leek yet has
a taste similar to garlic and is found predominantly
Rock Cornish Hen - A hybrid chicken, Rock
Cornish Hens are very small. The average whole
hen is from 1 to 1 1/2 pounds.
Rock Salt - A crystalline form of salt
that is mixed with cracked ice to freeze ice cream.
Roe - Fish eggs. This delicacy falls into
two categories-hard roe and soft roe. Hard roe
is female fish eggs, while soft roe (also called
white roe) is the milt of male fish. Salting roe
transforms it into caviar. Roe is marketed fresh,
frozen and canned.
Rolling Boil - A very fast boil that doesn't
slow when stirred.
Rolling Pin - A cylindrical kitchen utensil
with many uses, which include rolling pastry,
crushing bread crumbs, and flattening other foods.
Though the most common is hardwood, rolling pins
may be made from other materials, such as ceramic,
marble, metal, and plastic.
Rolling Mincer - A tool with several circular
blades arranged in a row with a handle. The mincer
is used by rolling the device over vegetables
and herbs in a back and forth manner.
Romano Cheese - Named for the city of Rome,
this hard grana cheese has a brittle texture and
pale yellow-white color; mostly used for grating
after aging for one year.
Roquefort Cheese - One of the oldest and best-known
cheeses in the world, this French cheese made
from sheep's milk is considered the prototype
of blue cheeses.
Rosemary - An herb (Rosmarinus officinalis)
with silver-green, needle-shaped leaves, a strong
flavor reminiscent of lemon and pine and a strong,
sharp camphor-like aroma; available fresh and
Rosette and Rosette Iron - A fried pastry
made by dipping a rosette iron into a thin (usually
sweet) batter then into hot, deep fat. The fried
pastries are then drained and sprinkled with a
mixture of cinnamon and sugar. The rosette iron
is a metal rod with a heat-proof handle. Decorative
shapes--to be dipped in the batter--are attached
to the end.
Rotini - ("Spirals" or "Twists")
- This pasta's twisted shape holds bits of meat,
vegetables and cheese, so it works well with any
sauce, or you can use it to create fun salads,
baked casseroles, or stir-fry meals.
Rotisserie - A device which contains a
spit with prongs. Food (usually meat or poultry)
is impaled on the the spit, fastened securely
then cooked. Most rotisseries are motorized so
they automatically turn the food as it cooks.
Roulade - A thin piece of meat which is
stuffed with a filling, secured with picks or
string, then browned and baked.
Roux - A mixture of fat and flour which
is blended and cooked slowly over low heat until
the desired consistency or color is reached. Roux
is used as a base for thickening sauces.
Royal Icing - An icing which hardens when
dried. Royal icing is made with confectioners'
sugar, egg whites, flavoring, and sometimes food
Ruote - Wheel shaped pasta. Ruote is Italian
Rutabaga - A member of the cabbage family
with firm, pale-yellow flesh and a slightly sweet
flavor. Also known as a Swedish turnip.
Rye Flour - Finely ground flour made from
rye grain; the most important bread flour after