Olive - Mild-flavored Italian black olives;
usually dry-salt cured, giving them a wrinkled
appearance, then rubbed with olive oil and packed
with rosemary and other herbs.
Galangal, Galingale Root - A southeast Asian
rhizome with reddish skin, orange or white flesh
and a peppery, gingerlike flavor; used particularly
in Thai and Indonesian cuisines, often as a substitute
Galantine - A traditional French dish made
from poultry, meat or fish that is boned and stuffed
with a forcemeat, and often studded with items
such as pistachio nuts, olives and truffles.
- An American unit of measurement equal to 128
fl. ounces, 16 cups, 8 pints or 4 quarts.
Ganache - A term used for a very rich chocolate
filling or thick glaze made with chocolate, shortening,
and cream used for filling and frosting.
Garam Masala - A mixture of dry-roasted, finely
ground, cumin, coriander, cloves, cinnamon, cardamom,
dried chiles, fennel, mace, black pepper and possibly
other spices. Garam masala is similar to curry
powder and is used widely in Indian cooking.
Bean - See chickpea.
Garlic - A highly aromatic and strongly
flavored edible bulb composed of several sections,
called cloves. Each clove is encased in a papery
covering. Garlic is used in most cuisines around
Garlic Powder - Dehydrated garlic that
is finely ground into a powder and used as a seasoning.
Garlic Salt - A blend of salt and garlic
powder garlic powder used as a seasoning.
Garnish - To present dishes with visual
and flavor enhancement using additional edible
elements. Common are herbs like parsley springs
and fruit like thin slices of lemons
Gazpacho - Cold Spanish vegetable soup made
with meat broth, crushed fresh tomatoes, and diced
raw vegetables like onions, cucumbers, and peppers.
Gastronomy - The art and science of fine
dining, fine food and drink.
Gateaux - French for cake.
Gefilte Fish - Jewish dish made of ground
fish (usually carp, pike and or whitefish) combined
with eggs, matzo meal and seasonings. The mixture
is shaped into balls and simmered in vegetable
or fish stock.
Gelatine - A thickener used in molded (Jello®
type) desserts and dishes that has no flavor,
odor or color. It is pure protein from veal and
beef bones and by -products.
- (jeh-LAH-toh) Gelato comes from gelare, the
Italian word for "to freeze" and is
the general term for all frozen desserts. Less
general, it refers to a milk based combination
with a dense, buttery consistency similar to that
of American ice cream.
Gemelli - The Italian term for twins, describing
two short bits of spaghetti pasta twisted together
in the shape of a cord or rope.
Genovesini - Short lengths of thick tube
pasta, cut diagonally on each end.
Geoduck - A huge, soft-shell Pacific clam.
Weighing an average of 3 pounds, but sometimes
as much as 13 pounds, geoduck is distinguished
by a long neck that can reach up to 18 inches
and account for about half its body weight.
Germ - The embryo of a kernel of grain, such
as wheat, making up about 2.5 percent of the kernel's
weight; often separated out in processed flour
because its fat content makes flour more perishable.
Wheat germ, which is left in whole wheat flour,
has a large content of complex vitamins and trace
minerals. It can also be purchased separately.
Ghee - This form of clarified butter is
taken a step further by simmering it until all
of the moisture evaporates and the milk solids
begin to brown, giving the resulting butter a
nutty, caramel flavor and aroma. Ghee has a longer
life and much higher smoke point than regular
- The gizzard, liver, heart and neck of poultry.
Ginger, Ginger Root - This knotty tuber
from a tropical plant from China is used to flavor
beverages and dishes in Asian and Indian cuisinees.
It has a taupe skin, ivory flesh and a peppery,
sweet flavor with a hint of lemon.
Ginkgo - A nut from the center of the inedible
fruit of the maidenhair tree. This nut turns bright
green when cooked and has a delicately sweet flavor.
Glace - A very reduced stock used in flavouring
sauces and enhancing soups and stews.
Glaze - A liquid coating that gives a shiny
coating to food. It can be a savory glaze on meats
or a sweet glaze on pastry and baked goods.
Gluten - Protein found in flour that gives
wheat yeast dough its elasticity.
Gnocchi - Italian dumpling.
Goat Cheese - Known as Chevre, this fresh
soft goat's milk cheese has a distinctive tart
flavor. Chèvres can range in texture from
moist and creamy to dry and semifirm.
Golden Delicious Apple - A sweet, crisp,
juicy all-purpose apple with yellow skin and flesh
that resists browning. This feature makes it ideal
for fruit salads. It is also suitable for baking,
cooking, applesauce and eating out of hand.
Gomiti - Hollow corners of pasta similar to
elbows, pipe or small lumache.
Gooseberries - Large, tart berries that grow
on bushes and come in many varieties including
green, white, yellow and red, and with skins that
are either smooth or fuzzy. Gooseberries are excellent
in jams, jellies and pies.
Cheese - Similar to American blue cheese,
this Italian cow's milk cheese is rich and creamy
with a savory, slightly strong flavor.
Gouda Cheese - A famous cheese from Holland,
thiscow's milk cheese is a firm, smooth cheese
that comes in aged and non aged forms. It has
a creamy texture, nutty flavor and a light yellow
color with very small holes.
Goulash - A Hungarian style stew containing
meat, vegetables and paprika served sour cream
Gourmet - French term meaning "connoisseur
of culinary delights".
Gram (g) - Basic measure of metric weight:
28.35 grams = 1 ounce and 1000 grams = a kilogram
= 2.2 U.S. pounds.
Grand Marnier - Orange flavored liqueur
Granita - (GRAH-nee-tah) Granita is a fruit
based gelato that has a decidedly grainy texture
because it is frozen, then scraped to form coarse
ice granules. Granita is slushy.
Granola - A combination of grains, nuts
and dried fruits, often mixed with honey, eaten
as a cereal.
Granulated Sugar - Regular white, refined
sugar for common use.
Grape Leaves - The leaves taken from grapevines
have been used in Mediterranean cuisine for hundreds
Grapes - Very juicy berries that grow in
clusters and have a very smooth very thin skin.
They come in colors from green and red to deep
purple and can have seeds or be seedless. They
are the fruit that is process and fermented in
winemaking and dried to make raisins.
Grapefruit - An 18th-century hybrid of an
orange and pomelo, this large citrus fruit has
a relatively thin rind that can be yellow or rosy.
Ruby grapefruits have a yellow-pink to brilliant
ruby-red sweet pulp. White grapefruits have a
yellow-white pulp and tart flavor. This variety
is better for juicing.
Grate - To break up a piece of food into
smaller pieces by abrading it against a rough,
irregular surface as in a hand grater or a food
Gratin - To combine foods with a liquid
based sauce in a shallow dish and baked until
set and browned on top.
Gravy - Juices from cooked meat that have
been thickened with a roux.
Grease - To coat a cooking vessel or sheet
with a thin layer of oil or shortening.
Great Northern Bean - A delicately flavored
large, flat, kidney-shaped white bean. Available
dried or canned.
Green Bean, String Bean, Snap Bean - A
thin, crisp, green pod that contains several small
seeds and is entirely edible.
Grenadine - Sweet, red, pomegranate flavored
syrup made from pomegranate juice or other fruit
concentrates. Grenadine usually contains alcohol.
Griddle - A flat pan, often made of cast iron
or aluminum, used to cook food with little fat
or oil. Griddles are available with a nonstick
surface and usually have either a long handle
or two hand grips.
Grill - 1. To cook on a grill. 2. Cooking
equipment in which the heat source (gas, charcoal,
hardwood or electric) is located beneath the rack
on which the food is placed; it is generally not
enclosed, although it can be covered.
Grillade - A Creole dish of pounded round
steak served in a sauce of tomatoes and other
vegetables, and traditionally served with grits.
Grillade is also a French word meaning grilled
or broiled food.
Grilling Basket - A basket used while grilling
smaller items. The device holds food in place
to keep it from slipping through the grill.
Grind - To process foods in a grinder or
processor. Texture can be in variable degress
from finely to coursely ground.
Grissini - Italian bread sticks.
Grits - Commonly refers to coarsely ground
dried hominy and known as hominy grits, a dish
of the (American) South. Grits are generally prepared
in boiling water and served as a cereal or side
Ground Beef - Beef that has been ground or
finely chopped; commonly referred to as hamburger.
- A cow's-milk cheese containing a moderate amount
of fat with a rich, sweet, nutty taste.
Guacamole - Mashed avocado flavored with
lemon or limejuice, and optional ingredients of
chiles, finely chopped tomatoes, green onion and
cilantro. This is an authentic Mexican dish served
as a dip, a salad or a side dish.
Guajillo Chili Peppers - A very hot pepper
that is about 4 inches long. When dried, the skin
is a shiny deep-red and must be soaked for a long
time because of its toughness.
Guava - A sweet, fragrant tropical fruit.
Guavas are oval, about 2 inches in diameter, and
color ranges from yellow to bright red. The ripe
fruit is often used in jams, preserves, juices,
Gueuze - Traditional style of Belgian beer,
light, acidic, naturally fermented with a tart
taste and gentle effervescence. Best after 3 years
but can be cellared up to 20.
Gumbo - Gumbo is a Creole stew that contains
tomatoes, okra, and other vegetables, meats or
seafood. A roux of is added for thickening the
gumbo, and filé powder added for flavoring
just before serving.
Gyro - A Greek sandwich of finely chopped,
molded and roasted meat that is sliced and served
in pita bread with a cucumber yogurt dressing.
Gyromitres - A European mountain mushroom
outlawed for sale due to the presence of hydragine,
a substance which is toxic if prepared incorrectly.