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FDA requires a food labeled "fresh" to be raw, having never been frozen or heated, and containing no preservatives.

This does not apply to some uses of the term fresh, as in "fresh milk" or "fresh bread."
Incorporating ingred-ients into egg whites requires a gentle touch. Since beaten egg whites have been aerated, it is important to fold ingredients into them to assure a minimal loss of volume. Using a rubber spatula, lift and gently fold in the ingredients.
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Culinary Terms

Fagioli - The Italian term for beans, most often white kidney beans

Fahrenheit
- A temperature scale with 32º as the freezing point of water and 212º as its boiling point..

Fajitas - A Mexican-American dish consisting of strips of beef skirt or chicken breast strips marinated in lime juice, garlic, red pepper and grilled with onions and sweet peppers. The mixture is wrapped in a four tortilla and served with sour cream, and pico de gallo as garnishes.

Falafel - A Middle Eastern dish consisting of a paste made from ground dried chickpeas and herbs shaped into balls and deep-fried.


Farce - French for forcemeat or stuffing.

Farfalle - Bow tie shaped pasta. Farfallini is the smaller version.

Farina - Inner portion of coarsely ground hard wheat, also known as Cream of Wheat.

Farmer Cheese - A form of cottage cheese, pressed to remove most of the liquid. Dry farmer cheese is firm enough to slice or crumble.

Fast Rising Yeast - Smaller-grained than conventional active dry yeast; speeds rising as much as 50 percent, which may eliminate the need for a second rising. This form of yeast measures the same as active dry yeast and works best when mixed directly with the dry ingredients before adding liquid.

Fat Free, Fat-free - A food containing fewer than 0.5 grams of fat per serving.

Fat Separator
- A clear cup (usually made of plastic) with a long spout set very low on the cup; used to make lower-fat gravy. Pan drippings are poured into the cup and the fat rises to the top. The desirable liquid remains below and can be poured off through the spout. Also known as a gravy separator.

Fatback - Fat from the back of a pig, used to make lard or cracklings, as well as for seasoning.

Fava Bean - A meaty, strong flavored bean that is light brown in color, flat in shape and looks somewhat like a large lima bean. They are available dried or canned. They work well in side dishes, soups, or salads.

Fedelini
- A very fine type of vermicelli pasta.

Feijoa, Pineapple Guava - An exotic fruit from New Zealand that tastes somewhat like a mixture of pineapple, banana and strawberry. It has a thin green skin and can be eaten raw or used in preserves and jellies.

Fennel - Both the seeds and the stalks from this plant are called fennel. 1. The plant has feathery foliage and white bulbous stalk. Fennel tastes like licorice or anise, and commonly used in Italian dishes. 2. The plant's oval, green-brown seeds have prominent ridges and short, hair-like fibers. Their taste is similar to anise seed, but sweeter and milder. It goes well with fish but Italians add it to sauces, meat balls, and sausages.

Fermented Black Beans
- Small black soybeans preserved in salt; used in Chinese cuisine. Fermented black beans have a very salty and pungent flavor. Also known as Chinese black beans and salty black beans.

Fenugreek - A very hard seed grown in the Middle East and used as a spice. It adds an earthy flavor to chutneys and curries.

Feta - 1. A salty, soft Greek cheese made from ewe's milk and pickled in brine It has a white color, crumbly texture and salty, sour, tangy flavor. 2. A soft, white, flaky American feta-style cheese made from cow's milk and stored in brine.

Fettuccine - Long, relatively thick ribbons of pasta. A narrower version is called fettuccelli, while a wider one is called fettucci. Fettucine goes well with cream, cheese, meat and tomato sauces.

Fig - A pear-shaped fruit that grows well in warm regions with a thick, soft skin, sweet flavor and many tiny edible seeds. Popular varieties usually have dark purple skin and pink flesh or green skin and pinkish-white flesh.

Filé Powder - An American seasoning made of sassafras leaves and used to flavor and thicken Creole dishes, such as gumbo.

Fillet or Filet - To remove bones from a fish, so that only the flesh remains. The process depends on the type of fish. Though similar, it is different for flat fish, like a flounder, or round fish, like a trout. The best way to learn how is to purchase a cookbook with details or watch the cooking shows. If in doubt, your seafood monger will do it for you.

Filo, Phyllo - Layers of paper-thin leaves of dough used in Greek and Middle Eastern cuisine. Frozen phyllo dough can be found in most supermarkets and should be thawed overnight in the refrigerator. Also spelled "phylo," "filo," and "fillo."

Finely - Especially small, as in finely chopped, but not as small as minced.

Fines Herbes - A mixture of finely chopped herbs made up of equal parts chervil, tarragon, chives, and parsley or equal parts chervil and chives (not always limited to these combinations).

Finger-tip Test - A method used to test whether risen dough has doubled in size. Two fingers are pressed lightly and quickly ½ inch into the risen dough. If the dents stay, the dough has doubled.

Fino Olive Oil - A blend of extra-virgin and virgin olive oils. Fino means "fine" in Italian.

Fiori Di Sambuco
- Small star-shaped pasta used in soups.

Fischietti - The smallest tube-shaped pasta.

Fish - Any one of a thousand species of aquatic vertebrates with fins for swimming and gills for breathing, found in saltwater and freshwater worldwide.

Fish Sauce - A strong, salty sauce made from fresh anchovies. Used primarily in Thai cooking.

Five Spice Powder - A ground Chinese seasoning that contains equal amounts of cinnamon, cloves, ground star anise, fennel, and Szechuan peppercorns.

Flageolets - A French kidney-shaped bean, generally available in the United States dried or canned; often used as an accompaniment to lamb.

Flake - To gently break up into small pieces, usually with a fork or your fingers.

Flambé - Dramatic presentation of food by sprinkling with alcohol (or other flamable substance) and igniting into flames.

Flan - 1. A round pastry tart that can have a sweet or savory filling. 2. A Spanish custard coated with caramel.

Flank Steak
- A long, thin, fibrous cut of beef from an animal's lower hindquarters, usually tenderized by marinating.

Flauta - Corn tortilla wrapped around a meat or poultry filling and fried. Usually served with guacamole and sour cream.

Flavor - To add seasoning or other ingredients to a food or beverage to enhance taste.

Florentine - 1. A cookie that contain butter, cream and often coated with chocolate. 2. Also refers to dishes containing spinach and usually a cream sauce.

Florets - The small, closely bunched flowers that make up the whole head or broccoli or cauliflower.

Flounder - A large family of flatfish, flounder generally has lean, firm flesh and a delicate flavor. Available whole or in fillets, the fish can be baked, boiled, poached, steamed or sautéed. Flounder is often marketed as sole, which (with the exception of imported European Dover sole) is actually a variety of flounder.

Flour - 1. (used as a verb) To lightly sprinkle or coat with flour. 2. A powdery substance made by milling wheat, corn, rye or other grains that are available in various degrees of fineness.

Flour Dredger
- A kitchen device similar to a large salt shaker with a handle for sifting a coating, such as flour, cocoa powder or confectioners' sugar, onto foods.

Flute
- 1. To press a scolloped pattern into the raised edge of a pie crust. 2. To groove or slit markings in vegetables (like cucumbers) and fruits for decoration. 3. A tall, thin, stemmed champagne glass. 5. A long, thin loaf of bread.

Focaccia - An Italian flatbread made with pizza or bread dough. Herbs, cheese and other toppings may be added or it can be served plain.

Foie Gras - The term means goose liver, but is used to describe the fattened liver of both duck and geese.

Foil, Aluminum Foil - A thin pliable sheet of aluminum; easily molded, conducts heat well, can withstand temperature extremes and is impervious to odors, moisture and air; used to cover foods for cooking and storage.

Fold - To gently mix two or more ingredients together by softly lifting up and over from the sides to the center.

Fondant - A very sweet and thick sugar paste used in candy making and glazing baked goods.

Fondue - A dipping sauce such as cheese or chocolate which is usually served warm along with the items to be dipped such as bread, meat, fruit, etc.

Fontina Cheese - A high-fat (about 45 percent) Italian cheese made from cow's milk, with a mild, slightly nutty flavor and creamy texture. Fontina has a dark golden-brown rind and a pale-yellow interior that's dotted with tiny holes.

Forcemeat - Ground up meat(s) combined with seasonings and other ingredients, used for stuffing.

Formaggio - Italian word for cheese.

Frappe
- (from the French frappe) A simple sugar syrup mixed with fruit or other flavorings and frozen, then processed to a slightly slushy consistency. It can be served as a drink or a dessert. In some parts of the United States, a milk shake is sometimes referred to as a frappe.

Freeze - To preserved food by placing it in temperatures below 32ºF (0ºC) so that the moisture solidifies.

Freezer Burn - A loss of moisture in foods when wrapped inappropriately before freezing. Texture and flavor of food is compromised and is confirmed by dry white or gray patches on the surface of the food.

Freezer paper
- A plastic-coated Kraft paper used for wrapping foods for freezing and for general household purposes. The plastic coating provides a barrier to air and moisture to protect the quality, flavor and nutrition of foods during freezing; the paper provides strength and durability as well as an easy-to-write-on surface.

French Fry - To deep-fry food, such as strips of potatoes.

Fresh - 1. A food that has been recently cooked or baked, such as a fresh bread. 3. A food left in a state as grown or harvested; not canned, dried or processed and containing no preservatives.

Fresh Frozen - Food that was frozen when it was fresh.

Fresh Masa - A dough used in the making of tamales that consists of ground, dried corn that has been soaked in limewater.

Fresine - Straight, narrow noodles similar in length to short spaghetti.

Fricassée - A stew that contains diced meat, lightly cooked in butter, and then simmered in liquid until tender.

Frisée - A member of the chicory family with delicately slender, curly leaves that are feathery in appearance and mildly bitter in taste.

Frijoles - Beans, most commonly referring to the pinto bean.

Frijoles Refritos - Refried beans. Most commonly cooked pinto beans that are mashed, sauteed in oil or fat, and mixed with cheese cheddar.

Frittata
- An Italian omelet that has additional ingredients mixed in with the eggs rather than being folded inside like a French omelet. It is sometimes baked or cooked in a skillet over very slow heat then flipped or the top browned under a broiler.

Fritter - Foods coated or dipped in batter, then deep-fried.

Fritto Misto - An Italian platter filled with a variety of mixed fried foods.

Frizzle - To fry thin slices of meat or other food until the edges curl
.
Fromage - French for cheese.

Fromage Blanc
- A simple French white cheese. This soft, fresh cream cheese has the consistency of sour cream. Fromage blanc is usually eaten with fruit and sugar as dessert, but it can also be used in cooking.

Frost - To apply sugar, frosting, glaze, or icing to fruit, cake, or other food.

Frosting - A cooked or uncooked sugar mixture used to cover and decorate cakes, cookies and other foods.

Fruit Pectin
- A substance found naturally in some fruits such as apples that possess the ability to gel liquids. It is an essential ingredient in making jelly and jam. Pectin can be purchased in powder and liquid form.

Fry - To cook food in hot cooking oil until it turns a light crispy brown.

Fry Bread - Thin, unleaved fried bread made from flour, water or milk, and salt. Fry bread is traditionally from Southwest Native Americans.

Fryer - A chicken that weights 3 to 4 pounds and is 9 to 12 weeks old.

Fudge - Candy (usually chocolate) made with sugar, butter, milk or cream, corn syrup, and flavorings that has a soft, creamy, smooth texture.

Fuji Apple - A cross between the Red Delicious and Virginia Rawls Jennet apples. Rosy in color and striped with green and yellow, these incredibly sweet apples are ideal for cooking and baking, applesauce or eating out of hand.

Funnel
- A conical tool with a short straight tube at the tip used to transfer liquids into a narrow-mouthed vessel. Funnels are available in various materials and some have strainers in the bottom to separate fine particles from the liquid.

Fusilier Col Buco
- Long, thin spirals about the same length as short spaghetti.

Fusilli - Literally means "Twisted Spaghetti". Popularly known as cork-screw pasta which is shaped like springs or screws.

 

 

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